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Give great attention to the crafting of your opening sentences because they will set the tone for what your audience should expect of your personality as you proceed medications interactions purchase 1 mcg alfacip fast delivery. To promote an increase in wages 7r medications buy discount alfacip 1 mcg online, you might explain that a study of more than 10 treatment of criminals purchase alfacip discount, 000 workers and managers in a variety of industries demonstrated that companies who pay their workers more were also more motivated to invest in new technology symptoms 14 dpo purchase alfacip 1 mcg with amex, enhance their management techniques, better train workers, and better deliver their services, all of which lead to higher productivity and increased profits (Applebaum & Bernhardt, 2004). Focusing on areas of agreement will make the audience more receptive to your proposition, but they will still hold some reservations. Acknowledge those reservations and demonstrate that you have given them ample consideration. Cite credible evidence that supports your proposition in light of those reservations. Showing that you understand and respect their opposing position is the most important step toward encouraging a hostile audience to at least hear you out. In a persuasive speech, the argument will focus on the reasons for supporting your specific purpose statement. This argumentative approach is what Aristotle referred to as logos, or the logical means of proving an argument (Braet, 1992). When offering an argument you begin by making an assertion that requires a logical leap based on the available evidence (Campbell & Huxman, 2009). One of the most popular ways of understanding how this process works was developed by British philosopher Stephen Toulmin (Herrick, 2011). Toulmin explained that basic arguments tend to share three common elements: claim, data, and warrant. For example, if I saw large gray clouds in the sky, I might make the claim that "it is going 16-7 While there are many things speakers can do to build their ethos throughout the speech, "assessments of ethos often reflect superficial first impressions, " and these first impressions linger long after the speech Chapter 16 Persuasive Speaking The warrant is a connector that, if stated, would likely begin with "since" or "because. Since large gray clouds tend to produce rain (warrant), it is going to rain today (claim). However, in our regular encounters with argumentation, we tend to only offer the claim and (occasionally) the warrant. Backing provides foundational support for the claim (Herrick, 2011) by offering examples, statistics, testimony, or other information which further substantiates the argument. To substantiate the rain argument we have just considered, you could explain that the color of a cloud is determined by how much light the water in the cloud is reflecting. A thin cloud has tiny drops of water and ice crystals which scatter light, making it appear white. Clouds appear gray when they are filled with large water droplets which are less able to reflect light (Brill, 2003). To test the validity of a general claim, Beebe and Beebe (2003) encourage speakers to consider whether there are "enough specific instances to support the conclusion, " whether the specific instances are typical, and whether the instances are recent (p. As you reason through your argument you may proceed inductively, deductively, or causally, toward your claim. For example, if you read online reviews of the opposite of inductive reasoning is deductive reasoning, moving from a general principle to a claim regarding a specific instance. A syllogism begins with a major (or general) premise, then moves to a minor premise, then concludes with a specific claim. To verify the accuracy of your specific claim, you must verify the truth and applicability of the major premise. If the major premise is truly generalizable, and both premises are accurate, your specific claim should also be accurate. While we have focused heavily on logical reasoning, we must also recognize the strong role that emotions play in the persuasive process. Pathos draws on the emotions, sympathies, and prejudices of the audience to appeal to their non-rational side (Beebe & Beebe 2003; Reike, Sillars, & Peterson, 2009). For example, when fundraising for breast cancer research, Nancy Brinker, creator of Susan G. Throughout her diagnosis, treatments, pathos and endless days in the hospital, she spent her time thinking of ways to make life better for other women battling breast cancer instead of worrying about her own situation. That concern for others continued even as Susan neared the end of her fight (Komen National, n.
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Eyewitness identification refers to recognition by a witness to a crime of a culprit unknown to the witness medications like lyrica 1 mcg alfacip with visa. Borchard medications janumet alfacip 1 mcg visa, Convicting the Innocent: Sixty-Five Actual Errors of Criminal Justice (New York: Garden City Publishing Company treatment meaning order alfacip 1 mcg, Inc treatment keloid scars buy 1 mcg alfacip overnight delivery. The police then received a tip that a local man named Ronald Cotton resembled the composite, and shortly after the crime, Thompson was shown a photo array containing six photos. This would make Cotton more familiar and might suggest that he was the prime suspect. Nevertheless, Thompson remained hesitant and was having trouble deciding between two people. Poole had been presented to Thompson at a post-trial hearing, and she could not recognize him. In response to this error, the lead detective in the case, Mike Gauldin, later as police chief, was the first in the state to institute a series of new practices, including double-blind lineup procedures. Ronald Cotton and Jennifer Thompson have since written a book, Picking Cotton, that describes their case and experiences. One estimate based on a 1989 survey of prosecutors suggests that at least 80, 000 eyewitnesses make identifications of suspects in criminal investigations each year. Many eyewitnesses testified with high confidence despite earlier expressions of uncertainty. She became certain it was Cotton only after the police made confirmatory remarks and had her participate in two identification procedures where Cotton was the only person shown both times. While eyewitness misidentifications may have been a dominant factor in some erroneous convictions, it is important to note that other factors, including errors at various stages of the legal and judicial processes, may have contributed to the erroneous convictions. Schneller, "Frequency of Eyewitness Identification in Criminal Cases: A Survey of Prosecutors, " Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27(1): 71, 73 (January 1989). The goal of this effort was to evaluate the scientific basis for eyewitness identification, to help establish the scientific foundation for effective real-world practices, and to facilitate the development of policies to improve eyewitness identification validity in the context of the American justice system. The committee met three times, held numerous conference calls, heard from various stakeholders (see Appendix B), and reviewed extensive research on eyewitness identification before reaching its findings and recommendations. Unlike officers in the field, laboratory researchers have, in theory, greater control over influences that might contaminate the visual perceptual experience and memory of an eyewitness. Researchers formulate and test hypotheses using observations and experiments, which are then subject to independent review. In science, evidence and data are analyzed and experiments are repeated to ensure that biases or other factors do not lead to incorrect conclusions. Scientific progress results from the review and revision of earlier results and conclusions. The culture of scientific research is markedly different from a legal culture that must seek definitive results in individual cases. Supreme Court ruled that, under Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence (which covers both civil and criminal trials in the federal courts), a "trial judge must ensure that any and all scientific testimony or evidence admitted is not only relevant, but reliable. Law enforcement officials have first-hand experience with eyewitnesses in criminal investigations and trials, and over the years, some juridictions have implemented and strengthened practices and procedures in an attempt to improve acccuracy. Consequently, the law enforcement and legal communities have made important contributions to our understanding of eyewitness identifications and the improvements of practices in the field. Researchers have become increasingly involved in assessing eyewitness identification procedures as law enforcement, lawyers, and judges have themselves sought more accurate procedures and approaches. In the 2009 National Research Council report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, the committee noted, "in addition to protecting innocent persons from being convicted of crimes that they did not commit, we are also seeking to protect society from persons who have ease of reading, throughout the report the committee will use the term officer to mean law enforcement officials and professionals. The Court also noted that "there are important differences between the quest for truth in the courtroom and the quest for truth in the laboratory. A showup is a procedure in which officers present a single criminal suspect to a witness. This procedure usually occurs near the crime location and immediately or shortly after the crime has occurred. Officers also use photo arrays and live lineups, in which they ask the witness to view numerous individuals, one of whom may be the perpetrator. The eyewitness identification may, when considered with other available evidence, establish probable cause to support an arrest. Such evidence may play a pivotal role in enabling the prosecution to meet its burden of proof in a subsequent trial. In recent years, more law enforcement agencies have created written eyewitness identification policies and have adopted formalized training.
Such a foundation can be solidified through the use of more effective research designs medicine wheel teachings order alfacip 1mcg mastercard. The understanding derived from basic research includes principles that enable one to predict how a system (such as vision or memory) might behave under specific conditions (such as those associated with witnessing a crime) and to identify the conditions under which it will operate most effectively and those under which it will fail symptoms 28 weeks pregnant buy alfacip 1mcg with mastercard. Systematic reviews of stronger research studies need to conform to current standards and be translated into terms that are useful for decision makers symptoms gastritis order alfacip 1mcg visa. The committee here offers a summary of its key recommendations to strengthen the effectiveness of policies and procedures used to obtain accurate eyewitness identifications medicine z pack cheap 1 mcg alfacip. Recommendation #2: Implement Double-Blind Lineup and Photo Array Procedures the committee recommends blind (double-blind or blinded) administration of both photo arrays and live lineups and the adoption of clear, written policies and training on photo array and live lineup administration. Recommendation #3: Develop and Use Standardized Witness Instructions the committee recommends the development of a standard set of easily understood instructions to use when engaging a witness in an identification procedure. Recommendation #5: Videotape the Witness Identification Process the committee recommends that the video recording of eyewitness identification procedures become standard practice. This test evaluates the "reliability" of eyewitness iden- Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Moreover, the test treats factors such as the confidence of a witness as independent markers of reliability when, in fact, it is now well established that confidence judgments may vary over time and can be powerfully swayed by many factors. While some states have made minor changes to the due process framework, wholesale reconsideration of this framework is only a recent development. Recommendation #6: Conduct Pretrial Judicial Inquiry the committee recommends that, as appropriate, a judge make basic inquiries when eyewitness identification evidence is offered. Recommendation #7: Make Juries Aware of Prior Identifications the committee recommends that judges take all necessary steps to make juries aware of prior identifications, the manner and time frame in which they were conducted, and the confidence level expressed by the eyewitness at the time. Recommendation #8: Use Scientific Framework Expert Testimony the committee recommends that judges have the discretion to allow expert testimony on relevant precepts of eyewitness memory and identifications. Research targeting the specific problem of eyewitness identification complements basic scientific research. However, this strong scientific foundation remains insufficient for understanding the strengths and Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Many of the applied studies on key factors that directly affect eyewitness performance in the laboratory are not readily applicable to actual practice and policy. Recommendation #10: Establish a National Research Initiative on Eyewitness Identification the committee recommends the establishment of a National Research Initiative on Eyewitness Identification. Recommendation #11: Conduct Additional Research on System and Estimator Variables the committee recommends broad use of statistical tools that can render a discriminability measure to evaluate eyewitness performance and a rigorous exploration of methods that can lead to more conservative responding. The committee further recommends that caution and care be used when considering changes to any existing lineup procedure, until such time as there is clear evidence for the advantages of doing so. Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification 1 Introduction A ccurate eyewitness identifications1 may aid in the apprehension and prosecution of the perpetrators of crimes. However, inaccurate identifications may lead to the prosecution of innocent persons while the guilty party goes free. It is therefore crucial to develop eyewitness identification procedures that achieve maximum accuracy and reliability. Borchard documented nearly seventy cases of miscarriage of justice caused by eyewitness errors in his book, Convicting the Innocent. Supreme Court highlighted the danger of erroneous eyewitness identification in United States v. Wade, stating, "The vagaries of eyewitness identification are well-known; the annals of criminal law are rife with instances of mistaken identification. If only a fraction of the violent crimes in the United States involve an eyewitness, the number must this report, the term identification denotes person recognition. However, there are many agencies that do not have standard written policies or formalized training for the administration of identification procedures or for ongoing interactions with witnesses. Recent years have seen great advances in our scientific understanding of the basic mechanisms, operational strategies, and limitations of human vision and memory. These advances inform our understanding of the accuracy of eyewitness identification. What an individual actually perceives can be heavily influenced by bias18 and expectations derived from cultural factors, behavioral goals, emotions, and prior experiences with the world.
Additionally symptoms 3 days dpo 1mcg alfacip, evaluation of certain disinfection processes is particularly limited with respect to using molecular tools and indicators medications dogs can take alfacip 1 mcg online, although molecular viability methods are emerging medicine dictionary alfacip 1mcg low price. Challenge testing allows large log removals to be demonstrated by spiking influent concentrations with higher than normal microorganism concentrations to allow detection in the effluent treatment naive definition cheap alfacip 1 mcg. Because detected concentrations of actual pathogens tend to approach or fall at the lowest detectable concentrations of current analytical methods, further research in this area could provide greater confidence in the sensitivity of operational monitoring. Table 6-3 presents an indicative range of microbial log reductions reported in the literature for different treatment processes, which are further discussed in Section 6. These ranges are intended to present relative removals; they should not be used as the basis of design for treatment schemes. Ranges given should not be used as design or regulatory bases-they are meant to show relative comparisons only. Dose-Response: Establishing the relationship between the dose (number of microbes received) and the resulting health effects is a critical step in the process. Data sets from human and animal studies allow the construction of mathematical models to predict dose-response. Exposure Assessment: this step describes the pathways that allow a microbe to reach individuals and cause infection (through the air, through drinking water, etc. It is necessary to determine the size and 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse Helminths X 6-9 Chapter 6 Treatment Technologies for Protecting Public and Environmental Health duration of exposure by each pathway as well as estimate the number of people exposed and the categories of people affected. Risk Characterization: the final step of the process integrates information from previous steps into a single mathematical model to calculate risk-the probability of an outcome such as infection, illness, or death. Because the first three steps do not provide a single value but instead offer a range of values for exposure, dose, and hazard, risk needs to be calculated for all values across those ranges. This is accomplished using Monte Carlo analysis, and the result is a full range of possible risks, including average and worstcase scenarios. These are the risks decision-makers evaluate when defining regulatory policy and the risks that scientists review to determine where additional research is needed to obtain better information. Residential use of water typically adds about 300 mg/L of dissolved inorganic solids, although the amount added can range from approximately 150 mg/L to more than 500 mg/L (Metcalf & Eddy, 2003). Boron can be toxic to some plants at concentrations approaching levels that may be present in reclaimed water, which can limit the types of plants that can be irrigated with the water. Salinity can cause leaf burn, reduce the permeability of claybearing soils, and affect soil structure. Salinity can be removed in treatment, but options tend to be costly, and liquid waste (brine) disposal is an issue. Salinity management in irrigation reuse applications is described further in Chapter 3. Bromate can be created when bromide-containing wastewater is ozonated; therefore, treatment facilities must be designed and operated properly to minimize oxyhalide formation during treatment. Perchlorate, a component of propellants, can bioaccumulate in certain plants and must be managed in irrigation. Nitrogen and phosphorus from human waste products can pose environmental and health concerns but can also be beneficial in certain irrigation 6. Rainwater collects chemicals from atmospheric contact; groundwater contains inorganics from the geology; surface waters collect natural products and possibly pesticides and other chemicals from runoff and discharges from industrial and other facilities. Wastewater contains chemicals, and the number and concentrations of the constituents detected depends on many factors, including the municipal source, the condition of the collection system, and the treatment processes employed. The concentrations of inorganic constituents in reclaimed water depend mainly on the source of wastewater and the degree of treatment the water has received. The presence of inorganic constituents may affect the acceptability of reclaimed water for different reuse applications. Wastewater treatment using existing technology can generally reduce many trace elements to below recommended maximum levels for irrigation and drinking water. In general, the health hazards 6-10 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse Chapter 6 Treatment Technologies for Protecting Public and Environmental Health applications. Therefore, the need to remove nutrients during treatment for reuse depends on the intended use of the product water. Nanomaterials are materials with morphological features on the nanoscale (1 nm = 10-9 m), that often have special properties stemming from their dimensions. Nanomaterials have one or more dimensions ranging from 1 to 100 nm: nanofilms (one dimension), nanotubes (two dimensions), and nanoparticles (three dimensions).
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